Hawaiian ʻUkulele – “Made in Hawaiʻi” Ukes

The ʻukulele is a uniquely Hawaiian instrument. But when buying an ʻukulele, you’ll face some key decisions. There will be different woods, sizes, shapes, and craftsmanship – and each variable creates a detour from the instrument’s heritage. So what sets apart the traditional-style Hawaiian ʻukulele from the rest?

Characteristics of a Hawaiian ʻUkulele

In its purest sense, a Hawaiian ʻukulele is one that is hand-built in Hawaii and made from woods grown and harvested in Hawaiʻi.

Hand-built means that a majority of the parts were crafted by a person skillfully operating hand and power tools. This allows the builder to account for the character of each wood and impart a personal touch to produce the purest tone.

The most common tonewood used to build a Hawaiian ʻukulele is koa, but other local woods are also used. This includes milo, mango, ʻohiʻa, or kamani.

The woods that are grown and harvested in Hawaiʻi are prized for having the characteristics of its unique climate and ecology. There is something special about a Hawaiian tree that was fed by Hawaiian rain, nourished in Hawaiian soil, and grown under the Hawaiian sun.

The Four Ks

There are four major companies, building Hawaiian-style ukes in Hawaiʻi today. They are commonly known as the “Four Ks” – Kamaka, KoAloha, Kanileʻa, and Koʻolau. All four brands build high quality instruments and each has their own style of construction, resulting in subtle differences of sound, feel, and playability.

Of the four brands, Kamaka is the most well known. They have been family owned and operated since 1916. Often referred to as the “Martin Guitars” of ʻukulele, Kamaka are prized for their adherence to the traditional style of building that began in Hawaiʻi in the late 19th century and into the early 20th century.

Changes in Traditions

ʻUkulele craftsmanship has evolved over the last twenty years.

Tonewoods

The scarcity of Hawaiian woods has forced many builders to use materials from other parts of the world. These may include spruce for soundboards, mahogany for the bodies, or ebony for fingerboards.

These woods may not be grown and harvested in Hawaiʻi, but the fact that the instrument has roots in Hawaiian ʻukulele crafting traditions still means that they are sought-after contemporary variations.

Precision Machining

Technology has also moved ʻukulele building away from strict hand-crafting. Machines now enable builders to laser cut the necks, bridges, and other parts, lending a new level of precision that cannot be achieved by handcrafting. Some companies maintain the integrity of the hand-building process by hand sanding the parts after they are laser cut.

What is considered “hand-built” exists on a spectrum and it is rare now to find a production-level instrument that has been 100 percent crafted by hand.

The build process of most shops can now be inspected online. If you’re curious which parts a certain company hand crafts or CNCs, check out some of these videos:

There are trade offs between machine and hand made instruments. Technology provides a consistency of build at the cost of tonal character. Building by hand injects human magic by compromising consistency. Some hand made ukes sound amazing, some sound okay, but a uke that is built with precision technology can split the difference 99% of the time.

Non-Hawaiian ʻUkulele

In contrast to ʻukulele that are Hawaiian, we can call all other ʻukulele “non-Hawaiian.” These can be put into two categories– factory-made imports and internationally handmade ʻukulele.

A factory-made instrument will have the majority of its parts – such as the body, neck, binding, and bracing – cut by machines. While each ʻukulele may be assembled at some point by a person, it is often done in an assembly line.

Building an instrument in this way doesn’t allow for the human touch and attention to detail that so often creates a magical depth or color of an instrument.

Internationally hand-crafted ʻukulele are instruments that are hand-built elsewhere in the world than Hawaiʻi and primarily use local tonewoods. These might include spruce, walnut, cherry, maple, rosewood, zebrawood, and sapele.

While the build quality between ʻukuleles from Hawaiʻi and those hand-built elsewhere are often very similar, many times the tonal outcomes are different. This is often dictated by the style of music native to the area and the inherent vision of the builder.

For instance, an instrument built in Michigan, USA might be intended for people who have folk and blues music roots. This might be reflected in a uke with a chimey, bright tone.

Whereas, a Hawaiian ʻukulele is probably built for (and by) people who have Hawaiian music roots and like a punchy, woody sound.

The Cost of a Made in Hawaiʻi ʻUkulele

The price of an authentic Hawaiian made ʻukulele can range from $1,000 for a simple all koa soprano (standard) size, to over $5,000 for a high-end custom tenor. There are two components considered to justify these price points: the woods used and the level of craftsmanship involved in the building process.

Hawaiian ʻukulele are made with koa, one of the most expensive woods in the world due to its limited supply and high demand. There are strict regulations on how much can be harvested per year and, of the wood harvested, only about 1-2 percent is instrument-grade wood. Thus, the market price for koa is significantly more expensive compared to other woods used for uke building.

In terms of craftsmanship, ʻukulele luthiery is a highly-specialized skill that requires years of experience to cultivate. There is an artform to how the soundboard is sanded, the carving of the bracing, and fine-tuning of each step in the building process.

This knowledge results in an instrument of high playability and tonal quality. True ʻukulele craftsmanship is something that can be seen. It can be heard. It can be felt. Seasoned players are willing to pay top dollar for this instrumental experience.

Think of it like a car– a Mercedes or Porsche costs a lot more than a Hyundai. A Hyundai runs perfectly fine and gets you from point A to point B, but a fine imported European vehicle will do it with a level of comfort and performance that comes with an extra cost.

An ʻukulele is the same way. While an imported factory-made ʻukulele will get the job done, cradling and strumming a hand-crafted Hawaiian ʻukulele is like sliding into the leather interior and revving the engine of a Porsche.

Ultimately, globalization creates choices that make it a great time to be an ʻukulele player. There are a variety of styles, brands, and price points available to anyone around the world.

If you want a true Hawaiian ʻukulele, there is lots to learn about the feels and build styles imparted into each instrument. Consider what you want from your ʻukulele experience. Ask your music store or online dealer where the woods are sourced from and what parts of the ʻukulele are handcrafted versus machine made.

If owning an instrument that connects to the rich heritage of Hawaiʻi is important to you, then the extra research, cost, and effort to try these ukes in person is well worth it.

Dagan Bernstein
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Dagan is a musician and educator from Waimea on Hawaiʻi Island. He enjoys singing and playing 100 year old Hawaiian cowboy tunes as well as being in the classroom teaching students how to derive the quadratic formula or pick the Harry Potter theme on their uke. More about Dagan